PHAB Accreditation in a Tribe
There are 565 federally recognized Tribes (U.S. Federal Register) in the United States, each with a distinct language, culture, and governance structure. Native American Tribes exercise inherent sovereign powers over their members and territory. Each federally recognized Tribe maintains a unique government-to-government relationship with the U.S. Government, as established historically and legally by the U.S. Constitution, Supreme Court decisions, treaties, and legislation. No other group of Americans has a defined government-to-government relationship with the U.S. Government. See U.S. Constitution Article I, Section 8.
Treaties signed by Tribes and the federal government established a trust responsibility in which Tribes ceded vast amounts of land and natural resources to the federal government in exchange for education, healthcare, and other services to enrolled members of federally recognized Tribes. The Indian Health Service (IHS), among other federal agencies, is charged with performing the function of the trust responsibility to American Indians and Alaska Natives. (See Section 3 of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, as amended, 25 U.S.C. § 1602.) Public Law 93-638, the Indian Self-Determination and Educational Assistance Act of 1975 (ISDEAA), provides the authority for Tribes (includes Alaska Native villages, or regional or village corporations, as defined in or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act) to enter into contracts or compacts, individually or through Tribal organizations, with the Secretary of Health and Human Services to administer the health programs that were previously managed by the Indian Health Service. More than half of the Tribes exercise this authority under the ISDEAA and have established Tribal Health Departments to administer these programs, which are often supplemented by other public health programs and services through Tribal funding and other sources.